Hibernate原生SQL - hibernate

可以使用原生SQL来表达数据库查询,如果想利用数据库特有的功能,如查询提示或者Oracle中的CONNECT关键字。 Hibernate3.x允许使用手写SQL语句,包括存储过程,所有的创建,更新,删除和load操作。

应用程序将从会话创建一个原生SQL查询(Session接口上)createSQLQuery()方法:

public SQLQuery createSQLQuery(String sqlString) throws HibernateException

当传递一个包含SQL查询到createSQLQuery()方法,可以将SQL结果与任何现有的Hibernate实体,联接,或者一个标量结果使用addEntity()方法,addJoin(),和addScalar()方法关联的字符串。

标量查询:

最基本的SQL查询是从一个或多个表中得到标量(数值)的列表。以下是语法使用原生SQL标量的值:

String sql = "SELECT first_name, salary FROM EMPLOYEE";
SQLQuery query = session.createSQLQuery(sql);
query.setResultTransformer(Criteria.ALIAS_TO_ENTITY_MAP);
List results = query.list();

实体的查询:

上面的查询都是返回标量值,也就是从resultset中返回的“裸”数据。以下是语法通过addEntity()方法来从原生SQL查询获得实体对象作为一个整体。

String sql = "SELECT * FROM EMPLOYEE";
SQLQuery query = session.createSQLQuery(sql);
query.addEntity(Employee.class);
List results = query.list();

命名SQL查询:

以下是语法通过addEntity()方法来从原生SQL查询获得实体对象和使用命名SQL查询。

String sql = "SELECT * FROM EMPLOYEE WHERE id = :employee_id";
SQLQuery query = session.createSQLQuery(sql);
query.addEntity(Employee.class);
query.setParameter("employee_id", 10);
List results = query.list();

Native SQL 例子:

考虑下面的POJO类:

public class Employee {
   private int id;
   private String firstName; 
   private String lastName;   
   private int salary;  

   public Employee() {}
   public Employee(String fname, String lname, int salary) {
      this.firstName = fname;
      this.lastName = lname;
      this.salary = salary;
   }
   public int getId() {
      return id;
   }
   public void setId( int id ) {
      this.id = id;
   }
   public String getFirstName() {
      return firstName;
   }
   public void setFirstName( String first_name ) {
      this.firstName = first_name;
   }
   public String getLastName() {
      return lastName;
   }
   public void setLastName( String last_name ) {
      this.lastName = last_name;
   }
   public int getSalary() {
      return salary;
   }
   public void setSalary( int salary ) {
      this.salary = salary;
   }
}

让我们创建下面的EMPLOYEE表来存储Employee对象:

create table EMPLOYEE (
   id INT NOT NULL auto_increment,
   first_name VARCHAR(20) default NULL,
   last_name  VARCHAR(20) default NULL,
   salary     INT  default NULL,
   PRIMARY KEY (id)
);

以下将被映射文件。

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE hibernate-mapping PUBLIC 
 "-//Hibernate/Hibernate Mapping DTD//EN"
 "http://www.hibernate.org/dtd/hibernate-mapping-3.0.dtd"> 

<hibernate-mapping>
   <class name="Employee" table="EMPLOYEE">
      <meta attribute="class-description">
         This class contains the employee detail. 
      </meta>
      <id name="id" type="int" column="id">
         <generator class="native"/>
      </id>
      <property name="firstName" column="first_name" type="string"/>
      <property name="lastName" column="last_name" type="string"/>
      <property name="salary" column="salary" type="int"/>
   </class>
</hibernate-mapping>

最后,我们将创建应用程序类的main()方法来运行,我们将使用原生SQL查询的应用程序:

import java.util.*; 

import org.hibernate.HibernateException; 
import org.hibernate.Session; 
import org.hibernate.Transaction;
import org.hibernate.SessionFactory;
import org.hibernate.SQLQuery;
import org.hibernate.Criteria;
import org.hibernate.Hibernate;
import org.hibernate.cfg.Configuration;

public class ManageEmployee {
   private static SessionFactory factory; 
   public static void main(String[] args) {
      try{
         factory = new Configuration().configure().buildSessionFactory();
      }catch (Throwable ex) { 
         System.err.println("Failed to create sessionFactory object." + ex);
         throw new ExceptionInInitializerError(ex); 
      }
      ManageEmployee ME = new ManageEmployee();

      /* Add few employee records in database */
      Integer empID1 = ME.addEmployee("Zara", "Ali", 2000);
      Integer empID2 = ME.addEmployee("Daisy", "Das", 5000);
      Integer empID3 = ME.addEmployee("John", "Paul", 5000);
      Integer empID4 = ME.addEmployee("Mohd", "Yasee", 3000);

      /* List down employees and their salary using Scalar Query */
      ME.listEmployeesScalar();

      /* List down complete employees information using Entity Query */
      ME.listEmployeesEntity();
   }
   /* Method to CREATE an employee in the database */
   public Integer addEmployee(String fname, String lname, int salary){
      Session session = factory.openSession();
      Transaction tx = null;
      Integer employeeID = null;
      try{
         tx = session.beginTransaction();
         Employee employee = new Employee(fname, lname, salary);
         employeeID = (Integer) session.save(employee); 
         tx.commit();
      }catch (HibernateException e) {
         if (tx!=null) tx.rollback();
         e.printStackTrace(); 
      }finally {
         session.close(); 
      }
      return employeeID;
   }

   /* Method to  READ all the employees using Scalar Query */
   public void listEmployeesScalar( ){
      Session session = factory.openSession();
      Transaction tx = null;
      try{
         tx = session.beginTransaction();
         String sql = "SELECT first_name, salary FROM EMPLOYEE";
         SQLQuery query = session.createSQLQuery(sql);
         query.setResultTransformer(Criteria.ALIAS_TO_ENTITY_MAP);
         List data = query.list();

         for(Object object : data)
         {
            Map row = (Map)object;
            System.out.print("First Name: " + row.get("first_name")); 
            System.out.println(", Salary: " + row.get("salary")); 
         }
         tx.commit();
      }catch (HibernateException e) {
         if (tx!=null) tx.rollback();
         e.printStackTrace(); 
      }finally {
         session.close(); 
      }
   }

   /* Method to  READ all the employees using Entity Query */
   public void listEmployeesEntity( ){
      Session session = factory.openSession();
      Transaction tx = null;
      try{
         tx = session.beginTransaction();
         String sql = "SELECT * FROM EMPLOYEE";
         SQLQuery query = session.createSQLQuery(sql);
         query.addEntity(Employee.class);
         List employees = query.list();

         for (Iterator iterator = 
                           employees.iterator(); iterator.hasNext();){
            Employee employee = (Employee) iterator.next(); 
            System.out.print("First Name: " + employee.getFirstName()); 
            System.out.print("  Last Name: " + employee.getLastName()); 
            System.out.println("  Salary: " + employee.getSalary()); 
         }
         tx.commit();
      }catch (HibernateException e) {
         if (tx!=null) tx.rollback();
         e.printStackTrace(); 
      }finally {
         session.close(); 
      }
   }
}

编译和执行:

下面是步骤来编译并运行上述应用程序。请确保在进行的编译和执行之前,适当地设置PATH和CLASSPATH。

  • 创建hibernate.cfg.xml配置文件中配置章节解释。

  • 创建Employee.hbm.xml映射文件,如上图所示。

  • 创建Employee.java源文件,如上图所示,并编译它。

  • 创建ManageEmployee.java源文件,如上图所示,并编译它。

  • 执行ManageEmployee二进制文件来运行程序。

会得到以下结果,并记录将在EMPLOYEE表中创建。

$java ManageEmployee
.......VARIOUS LOG MESSAGES WILL DISPLAY HERE........

First Name: Zara, Salary: 2000
First Name: Daisy, Salary: 5000
First Name: John, Salary: 5000
First Name: Mohd, Salary: 3000
First Name: Zara  Last Name: Ali  Salary: 2000
First Name: Daisy  Last Name: Das  Salary: 5000
First Name: John  Last Name: Paul  Salary: 5000
First Name: Mohd  Last Name: Yasee  Salary: 3000

如果检查EMPLOYEE表,它应该记录下已:

mysql> select * from EMPLOYEE;
+----+------------+-----------+--------+
| id | first_name | last_name | salary |
+----+------------+-----------+--------+
| 26 | Zara       | Ali       |   2000 |
| 27 | Daisy      | Das       |   5000 |
| 28 | John       | Paul      |   5000 |
| 29 | Mohd       | Yasee     |   3000 |
+----+------------+-----------+--------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql>
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